تاریخ جایگزین و کارکرد آن در همگانی‏سازی ‏تاریخ

نوع مقاله : علمی- پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد گروه تاریخ، دانشکدۀ ادبیات، دانشگاه اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران

2 دکترای تخصصی، پژوهشگر تاریخ، گروه تاریخ دانشگاه اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران

چکیده

اهمیت تاریخ‌نگاری و تأثیرگذاری آن بر ابعاد مختلف حیات سیاسی، اجتماعی و اقتصادی جامعه، ضرورت همگانی‏سازی‏ آن‌ را در سطح عمومی آشکار می‌کند. محققان برای پاسخ‌گویی به این نیاز، راه‌کارهایی اندیشیده‌اند؛ یکی از سازوکارهای مؤثر در این زمینه، «تاریخ جایگزین» ‏‏است‏ که در نقطه عطف‏ها‏ی تاریخی، مسیرهای احتمالی و موازی رخدادهای تاریخی را به چالش می‏کشد. درحقیقت نتایج مترتب از حادثۀ تغییریافته، با به چالش‌کشیدن شرایط سیاسی‌اقتصادی دنیای کنونی، جهانی جایگزین و غیرواقع را تصویر می‌کند. این رویه، به‌دلیل قابلیت‌های بالقوۀ آن، در عرصۀ تاریخ‌نگاری نیز کارکردهای مفیدی می‌یابد. ایجاد جذابیت برای عامۀ مردم، بالابردن قدرت تخیل و تعقل در درک گذشته، ارائۀ اشکال نوینی از واقعیت‌های اجتماعی، شکل‌دهی به تفکرات تاریخی و تقویت حافظۀ تاریخی، بخشی از قابلیت‌های تاریخ جایگزین به‌شمار می‏آید. این مقاله که با رویکرد توصیفی و تحلیلی و بر اساس مطالعات کتابخانه‌ای تدوین شده، به ضرورت اجتماعی‏‏سازی تاریخ، تاریخ جایگزین و چگونگی شکل‌گیری، توسعه وکارکرد آن در همگانی‏سازی‏ تاریخ می‏پردازد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Alternate History and its Function in the Popularization of History

نویسندگان [English]

  • Morteza Nouraei 1
  • Zohreh Rezaii 2
1 Professor, Department of History, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
2 PhD in History of Islamic Iran, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
چکیده [English]

The importance of historiography and its effect on different dimensions of the society's political, social, and economic life highlights the necessity of its popularization for different strata of the society. Researchers have studied solutions for this society's needs. One of those solutions is "Alternative History", which tries to challenge probable and parallel historical route of events in historical points of divergence. In fact, the upcoming events after this divergence illustrate a new world by challenging the present world's political-economic conditions. This technique, due to its potential characteristics, is of useful applications in historiography. Some of those characteristics are attracting the public, improving the fantasy and reason power of the public in thinking about the past, presenting novel shapes of social realities and shaping historical thinking, and improving the historical memory of the society. This is library research and was prepared using descriptive analysis and investigates the necessity of socialization of history, Alternative history and its appearance, development, and applications in the history popularization.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Alternative History
  • Socialization
  • Public audience
  • history popularization
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English Source
 
Becker, H.S, Casper, J. 1956. The development of identification with an occupation. American Journal of Sociology, 61, 289-98.
Bemben, R. B, J. Jajsczzok and J. Gajda. 2015. Cryptohistories, Cambridge Scholars Publishing
Bucher, R, Stallings, J. 1977. Becoming Professional. London: Sage Publications.
Calsamiglia, H, T. A. Dijk. 2004. Popularization discourse and knowledge about the genome, Discourse and Society, Vol.15(4): 369-389.
Clausen, J. A. 1968.  Socialization and Society, Boston, Little Brown and Company
Counterfactual History: A User’s Guide. 2004. American Historical Review. 109:845-858.
Harshit, P. D. 2015. Histories of Design, 10th European Academy of Design Conference - Crafting the Future
Hellekson, K. 2001. The Alternate History: Refiguring Historical Time, Kent State University Press
https://www.collinsdictionary.com
https://www.ldoceonline.com
Leeper, E. C. 2001. Alternate History 101.  from http://leepers.us/evelyn/ah101.htm
Maar, A. 2014. Possible Uses of Counterfactual Thought Experiments in History, Principia: An International Journal of Epistemology, Vol.18 (1): 87-113
Macionis, J. J. 2013. Sociology (15th ed.). Boston, Pearson.
Malcom, D, M. Loschnigg. M. Sokolowska-Paryz. 2014. The Great War Re-Remembered: Allohistory and Allohistorical Fiction, in book, The Great War in Post-Memory Literature and Film, Vol.18:171-186, Boston: DE GRUYTER
Marciniak, K. 2015. The Founder, preface, For or Against the Master, illustrated edition by lulu.com, 7-26
McKnight Jr, E. V. 1994. Alternative History: The Development of a Literary Genre, PhD Dissertation, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
McPherson, J. 2003. Revisionist Historians, Perspectives on History, The Newsmagazine of American Historical Association, 41(6), from www.historians.org/publications-and-directories/perspectives-onhistory/september-2003/revisionist-historians
Perez Zagorin, 1999. History, the Referent, and Narrative: Reflections on Postmodernism Now, History and Theory, 38:1-24
Rodwell, G. 2013. Whose History: Engaging history students through historical fiction, University of Adellaide press.
Rosenfeld, G. 2002. Why Do We Ask "What If?" Reflections on the Function of Alternate History, History and Theory, 41(4):90-103
Rosenfeld, G. 2019.  Why alternate histories have overtaken pop culture, Washingtonpost, from https://www.washingtonpost.com/outlook/2019/02/20/why-alternate-histories-have-overtaken-pop-culture/
Schenkel, G. 2012. Alternate history - alternate memory: counterfactual literature in the context of German normalization, Ph.D. Dissertation, Faculty of graduate studies, The University of British Colombia, Vancouver
Schmeink, L. 2009.  Dystopia, Alternate History and the Posthuman in Bioshock, Current Objectives of Postgraduate American Studies,10, from http://copas.uni-regensburg.de/article/view/113/137 regensburg.de/article/view/113/137
Schmid, G. 2009.  Counterfactuals and futures histories: retrospective imagining as an auxiliary for the scenarios of expectance, Historical Research,34(2):74-87
Schmunk, R. B. 2017. from http://uchronia.net/intro.html, 1991-2017
Schneider-Mayerson, M. 2009. What Almost Was: The Politics of the Contemporary Alternative History Novel, American Studies, 50(3/4):63-83
Šimon, D. 2016. Alternate history novels - comparison of Harris's Fatherland and Dick's The Man in a High Castle, A Bachelor Thesis of Faculty of Education Charles University, Prague
Spreicer, J. 2014. The Alternative History of Capitalism in HannesStein's Komet, An international Symposium, Zagreb, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, 7–8 April 2017, from https://www.academia.edu/32363745/THE_ALTERNATIVE_HISTORY_OF_CAPITALISM_IN_HANNES_STEINS_DER
Winthrop-Young, G. 2009. Fallacies and Thresholds, Historical Research, 34(2):99-117
Wislicz, T. 2015. Almost-Histories, or Why some Tales of the Past Do Not Become Histories, Published in book Cryptohistories, edited by Alicia Bemben, Rafal Boryslawski, Justyna Jajsczzok and Jacob Gajda, Cambridge